I often see debates on project management forums on LinkedIn, blogs and even at the water cooler around the office regarding what project management methodology is best. I have often wondered about the wisdom of such discussions. The two that are always compared are PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) and PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled Environments Version 2 – 2009). One such discussion with a fellow professional led me to have a little bit of a think.
PMBOK Process Model – Credit: PMI
I will declare my hand at the outset. I have squarely gone for certification route through the Cabinet Office products for project, programme and service management (PRINCE2, MSP and ITIL). This is not necessarily because I was convinced these were the best frameworks, but my assessment of what the market around me considered more valuable. With the Australasian market following that of the United Kingdom and Europe, it made more sense for me to pursue this line, than the PMBOK based certifications from the Project Management Institute (PMI) in PMP and PgMP.
PRINCE2 Process Model – Credit: ILX
Genesis of PMBOK is in the engineering sector in North America. I can see that has led to significant emphasis on the tools and techniques of how to manage projects. I find it has excellent guidance in what it calls the knowledge areas. For example, it provides techniques for monitoring and controlling projects through Earned Value Analysis (EVA), estimation through the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) analysis. It elaborates on Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) to identify sequencing and various lag options. It has tools and techniques for scheduling using Schedule Network Analysis, Critical Path and Critical Chain, discusses Resource Levelling and What-if Scenario Analysis. Tools and techniques is where PMBOK has it all over PRINCE2, which goes very little into the skills required to be a project manager.
PRINCE2 began with a desire to control capital IT projects in the United Kingdom. Interestingly, a methodology that began in such a technical sphere has very little in the form of guidance through tools and techniques. PRINCE2 is very strong on project governance. Its strength is in the focus on the continued business justification through a living Business Case. In managing by exceptions, it removes the temptation for death by project reports, but at the same time provides a mechanism for escalating when necessary. In managing by stages, it builds in regular reviews of whether the business case the project is trying to deliver to be still valid. The biggest outcome of this is the assertion that a project unlikely to deliver to business case is better cancelled than meandering along. Project structure and principles also ensure projects are delivering to strategic initiatives of the organisation.
I have previously posted about the challenge in implementing PRINCE2 as the project framework for supplier organisations. I have used the principles rather than exact implementation as described in the text. It is much easier to take the PMBOK tools and techniques and implement directly into your projects in a supplier context. PRINCE2 however does a better job of risk identification and management techniques with the various response options and planning. There are also pros and cons about the accreditation methods. PRINCE2 is often criticised for allowing potential non-practitioners to get certified because of its examination only method. In order to get a PMP accreditation, you have to go through a significant effort to prove hours under the belt. That is a good idea. But you have to accumulate Professional Development Units (PDU) to stay current. I have seen plenty of mickey mouse outfits dispensing PDUs like confetti to have any meaning to these.
When I consider all of this, it appears a futile argument from those in either camp. In my view the best option is to use PRINCE2 to understand “how” to run the project and PMBOK for guidance on “what” to do in the specific scenarios. The question is not one of PMBOK or PRINCE2, but how to use both in your projects.