Projects are inherently risky endeavours and require plenty of shepherding to ensure successful completion and the desired results. Key to successful project management is clarity of understanding on what you are trying to deliver. It is easier said than done. Different people can read the same requirements and have different impressions of deliverables. I’ve been thinking about some of the strategies I have used and seen successfully applied. Following is a set that I have found very useful. I find asking some, if not all of these questions consistently gives me best chance of success.
Q1: Can I focus on outcomes rather than outputs?
Most projects in my experience are too preoccupied with delivering the outputs. Predominant procurement methods are partly to blame for the culture of judging project success by its outputs. For example, an output may be a new software but the desired outcome is faster processing of orders. No one has monopoly on good ideas. In many instances requirements are gathered prior to projects starting, where assumptions fail on first inspection. Ask yourself if you have the ability to go back to the stakeholders if you were faced with such a scenario. If it is output that you must produce regardless of outcome, then your chances of success are low. On the other hand, if you know what the desired outcome is, you can articulate why a particular option may have more merit than another.
Q2: Do I have enough sponsor involvement?
I see plenty of projects languishing with project managers struggling to get buy in from various stakeholders. Any organisation is a political one by nature. There are stakeholders with various views. Some may have been keen to undertake the project; others may not have been so enthusiastic. Organisations have to prioritise their portfolio and you may require contribution from those that had their projects or ideas passed over. If you try to manage your way out of that, there is little hope of success. This is where involvement of your sponsor is key. They are usually in a position of authority to ensure cooperation, provide you with strategies to work within the organisation and remove obstacles before they become showstoppers.
Q3: Am I working to artificial deadlines?
I see many instances where projects are running to particular deadlines not because of level of effort required, but because someone in management has undertaken to have the outputs delivered at a certain date. Fred Brooks Jr, father of IBM/360 is one of my favourite authors. In his book “The Mythical Man Month” he gives a great example – It takes nine months childbirth. You can put nine women, you’ll get nine children, but it’ll take you nine months (paraphrasing). The effort is what it is. If artificial deadlines are to be met, it must come by trading off scope in the project. Simply throwing more staff at it does not solve the problem. In some cases you may be able to reduce elapsed time by throwing more resources. But beware, what takes one person 100 hours, will not be delivered by 100 people in one hour. There is a cost of communication and coordination.
Q4: How am I going to transition the outputs to the business?
So you have a set of outputs from the project … process, software, document, building … whatever these may be. Now what? The only way the customer can achieve any benefit out of these is once you have transitioned these into the business. I see many projects leaving transition planning to the end. That is always too late. The end of the project is usually a swarm of activity, many planned, many unplanned but necessary. You need to have planned your transition up front. Organisations have various levels of change appetite. You need to consider if you can take a big bang approach or need gradual transition into service.
Q5: What does my gut say?
If you are an experienced project manager, then trust your instincts. Our brains are programmed to catch patterns. You may get a feeling that something isn’t quite right. I have seen project managers ignore that if they have not been able to verify if there is indeed a need for concern. By the time they have realised what it is it is too late. If your gut tells you something is wrong, stay at it. Until you find out what it is. Have a method that you apply to it. Go through your risk register, deliverables, product descriptions, milestones. At first if you don’t see it, stay vigilant. Ignoring it is just about the worst thing you can do.
There are bound to be plenty of other questions that you should ask yourself. What is your list?
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